Most executive agreements were made on the basis of a treaty or an act of Congress. However, presidents have sometimes entered into executive agreements to achieve goals that would not have the support of two-thirds of the Senate. For example, after the outbreak of World War II, but before the United States entered the conflict, President Franklin D. Roosevelt negotiated an executive agreement that granted the United Kingdom 50 overflow destroyers in exchange for 99 years of leases for some British naval bases in the Atlantic. A treaty is negotiated by a group of countries, either by an organization created for that specific purpose or by an existing body such as the United Nations (UN) Disarmament Council. The negotiation process can take several years, depending on the topics covered and the number of participating countries. At the end of the negotiations, the contract will be signed by representatives of the governments concerned. The conditions may require ratification and signature of the treaty before it becomes legally binding. A government ratifies a treaty by depositing an instrument of ratification in a place defined by the Treaty; The instrument of ratification is a document containing a formal confirmation of the Government`s approval of the provisions of the Treaty. The ratification process varies according to the laws and constitutions of each country. In the United States, the president can only ratify a treaty after receiving the „advice and approval“ of two-thirds of the Senate. International agreements are formal agreements or commitments between two or more countries.
An agreement between two countries is called „bilateral“, while an agreement between several countries is „multilateral“. Countries bound by an international agreement are generally referred to as „States Parties“. Unless a contract contains provisions concerning other agreements or acts, only the text of the treaty is legally binding. Generally speaking, a treaty amendment is binding only on States that have ratified the amendment and agreements reached at review conferences, summits or meetings of States parties are political, but not legally binding. The Charter of the United Nations is an example of a treaty that contains provisions relating to other binding agreements. By signing and ratifying the Charter, countries have agreed to be legally bound by resolutions adopted by UN bodies such as the General Assembly and the Security Council. Therefore, UN resolutions are legally binding on UN Member States and no signature or ratification is required. The IGV (2005) is an international agreement between 194 States Parties and the World Health Organization to monitor, report on and respond to events that may pose a threat to international public health. The objective of the IGV (2005) is to prevent, protect, control, control and respond to the spread of diseases at the international level in a manner that is appropriate and limited to risks to public health and avoids unnecessary interference in international transport and trade.
(International Health Regulations, Article 2). For more information, see the RSI fact sheets. The Case Zablocki Act of 1972 requires the president to inform the Senate of any executive agreement within 60 days.