Agreement Between Undertakings

This distorts competition and reduces the choice of those who buy the goods or services concerned. The manipulation of tenders undermines the fundamental basis of a competitive tendering system aimed at obtaining the best possible price for the supply of goods or services. Market sharing agreements are essentially „lawn“ agreements aimed at limiting and reducing competition in certain aspects or areas that benefit the participants. Agreements to limit production or production are „disguised“ pricing mechanisms to reduce supply and thereby improve the ability of participants to raise prices. These agreements and practices are generally recognized as „cancers of the open market economy“. Coordination between undertakings which, without having reached the stage of concluding a formal agreement, have knowingly substituted competition risks for practical cooperation. Coordinated conduct may be justified by direct or indirect contacts between undertakings the intention or effect of which is either to influence market behaviour or to reveal to competitors the envisaged future conduct. © European Commission, Spire Healthcare, a private healthcare provider, and six ophthalmologists have been fined for their role in facilitating and agreeing the price of initial consultations between different consultants at a Speyer hospital in the north of England. While individual consultants (…) 58 million for implementation between October 2010 and January 2014 implemented a horizontal agreement to manipulate the prices of fruit compotes sold to private label supermarkets and out-of-home catering distributors and to share customers and quantities for the same products.

. . .